Before building any load bearing structure you must first get a local permit.
This will define the position of your building on your lot, its size, height and use. Your zoning determines the specific requirements for your area. You may or may not need building plans for the permit. Regardless, if you don't have a plan, you are bound to fail.
Look up your local building requirements online.
Building a clear span without trusses, using posts and beams requires careful "Bay Spacing". Your LIVE LOAD (snow) and DEAD LOAD (the weight of the roof itself) have requirements that MUST be met as well as WIND ratings.You may or may not need a Building Inspector for each stage of your building. Inspectors use the ICC (International Construction Codes
The framing system used in this eHow is a wood joinery system is called Lumber Link made by Socket Systems, LLC.
This 3/16 steel powder coated socket joins 6" x 6" rough cut timbers or wood 2"x6" members to form a frame (Gable or Gambrel) that is simply lifted into place.
Let's get started.
First clear your area. The goal is to make a level building surface. Most people build on a rise or mound dirt to raise their building. Ground leveling can be done with almost any tractor using a blade or bucket and level.
The floor drains were tied into each other and piped to the drain basket.
Here a simple wooden frame secures the drain fixture to be surrounded by gravel and eventually cement.
After the ground has been leveled, layout your building exterior and piers, using batter boards, mason line, and line levels.
A plum is used to locate the exact corner or center of each pier.
The Diagonal Method of checking your building layout.
If the layout is rectangular, string from each corner will form two triangles as shown. If the rectangle is perfect, these lines will be equal in length and the corners perfectly square. Simply adjust the corners by moving the lines right or left until they are equal.
Most pole barn builders sink 6"x6" vertical directly into cement.
..not Lumber Link. Pier holes are dug below the frost line for your region. You can use an auger or backhoe.
You can use 12" cardboard tubes or build your own form out of plywood.
Regardless, you will need a steel frame to support the cement. The custom form has a flanged base that can increases pier stability.
Place the form in the pier holes, check elevation and measurements using your layout lines.
Pour cement using a professional mix of 1 part Portland cement, 1 part sand, and 1 part crushed stone to 24 parts water. A cement vibrator should be used. Hint: Some instant cement mixes are not appropriate for piers.
The Hinged Frame Anchor on this system has 12" J Bolts that are placed into the cement BEFORE the cement is dry.
Positioning the Baseplate of the Frame Anchor is accomplished using a simple 1"x 4" board and an "L" strap screwed to the exterior Form Board.
The Hinged Frame Anchor Baseplate has tabs that MUST all be installed facing the same direction. This allows the frames to be easily tipped up.
Note the dry corner pier has convenient ledges for the exterior Form Board.
Remove the form and fill the holes.
A total of 16 piers were required for this building.
Each end wall had two piers that held Column Anchors (not Frame Anchors) used for vertical door supports. This building is 40ft. long and required 8ft. Bay Spacing. The foundation was now ready for the frames.
Frames are assembled on the ground.
The ends are square cut or at an angle matching the fixture. Lag bolts secure the steel socket to the 6"x6" wood timbers. Roof Purlin Clips are also mounted to the top of the frames every two feet. Hint: Careful measuring is mandatory.
Once the frame is built, a temporary horizontal board joining the vertical supports is required.
The Frame Anchor feet are placed into the tabs on the Baseplate. A safety rope is placed on the opposite side of the frame to keep it from falling forward as it is pulled up.
Tow Straps are evenly spaced on the frame roof and connected to a pull rope or chain.
A simple 2"x4" gin pole with a base and notch lift the line high enough to allow it to be pulled up. Depending on the weight of your frame it can also be pushed up with several workers.Typically an RV, tractor or truck will suffice.
Once the frame is vertical, the Frame Anchor is adjusted and bolted in place.
Temporary wood angle supports must be used until girts or purlins are connected.
When all frames are up it's best to connect the Purlins to the roof frames from the peak down.
These 2" x 6" boards are set on end and screwed to the steel Purlin Clips.2" x 6" boards thru 10 ft. Bays, 2" x 8" boards 12 ft. to 14ft. Bays, 2" x 10" up to 16 ft. Bays.
Adding a second floor can be done using engineered wood or Steel I-beams.
Socket Systems sells hangers for both. Here a steel I-beam with pre-welded joist clips is backed into place using an old set of wheels on a board and tractor.
A simple track was built on each side of the bay frame (both sides). The I-beam was placed between the tracks and lifted using two simple chain pulls.
Once in place.
the Steel Floor Hanger is bolted to the bay frame and supported with 2" x 6" boards under the Hanger tabs. Steel Haunch Braces (54") are required to support the beam. Note: The maximum side wall height, using this system, is 14ft. Your first floor height can be adjusted to make more or less head room on the second floor.
End walls that have vertical supports (for doors) do not need steel or engineered I-beams. Three 2" x 10" boards can be hand laminated.
One way to mount these header boards is by leaving space within the vertical frames.
There is a structural advantage to using 2' x 6" laminated boards as opposed to rough cut timber.
The vertical supports on these end walls should have pier foundations underneath them to prevent any sagging.
This is a photo of Column Anchors that are set into the cement to support two 2" x 6" boards.
Joists are 2" x 8" boards running between the bays.
In this view they are connected to pre-welded joist clips. A support board trimmed to fit under the joists resting on the I-beam ledge is required. NOTE: There are a variety of ways to build joists. Connecting to wood I-beams differs from steel I-beams.
Girts are the 2" x 6" boards that surround the exterior walls of the building.
This helps stabilize the structure. Spaced to receive a standard 4' x 8' sheet.
An additional method to strengthen the building against strong winds is Wind Braces.
This is a simple metal rod connected to the bottom Frame Anchor and running to the top of the next bay. A self adjusting screw will tighten the tension.
ROOFING- One method to create air flow from the eaves to the peak, is to attach 1" x 4" stringers diagonally to the purlins.
NOTE: This method is controversial and debated by professional roofers. We suggest you research this and other methods of roof insulation.
You can simply follow the the 4' x 8' sheet up the ladder and nail in place.
NOTE: This roof used 5/8" OSB on the top roof and 1/2" OSB on the lower roof.
Once the roof was in place roofing paper was installed.
The choice of roofing is yours. Metal or shingle roofs require backing specific to their areas. Please consult your local roofing company for suggestions.
Another clever approach to lifting shingles onto the roof is show here.
The same remote winch and cable system pulled a hand-truck up a board resting on the roof.
Siding is your choice.
Here 1/2" OSB created the exterior walls. The building will be completed with vinyl siding.
Flooring is also up to you.
Gravel or cement flooring can be poured at any stage of building after the roof is installed.
Building wrap is a must to keep the wind out.
Windows, doors and finishes are up to you. This system has several Kits that build clear span greater than 30 ft. wide. The building you see here was erected completely by one person.